Osteoporosis is defined as the progressive decrease in the bone mass that results in increased bone fragility and a higher risk of a bone fracture from even a minor fall or with no trauma at all. Osteoporosis literally means "porous bone".
Ways of preventing osteoporosis:
- Diet: should contain the adequate amount of proteins, total calories, vitamin D and calcium. Daily intake of 700 -1000 mg of calcium is adequate. Adolescents, pregnant or breast-feeding women, post-menopausal women and adults over age of 65 are advised to have 1500 mg of calcium daily. Sources of calcium include milk, cheese, yogurt, green leafy vegetables,
Brazil nuts, sardines and almonds. Daily intake of about 800 IU of vitamin D is recommended.
- Exercise: high-impact physical activity (as jogging) significantly increases the bone density in men and women. Gentle exercise in the elderly may reduce the risk of falls and improves the protective responses to falling.
- Avoid smoking because smoking promotes bone loss.
- Avoid alcohol intake.
- Pharmacologic corticosteroid doses should be reduced or discontinued if possible.
- For menopausal women: it is recommended that these women will take medications that promote bone growth and prevent bone loss. Bisphosphonates (as alendronate and risedronate) is a group of drug that inhibits bone loss.Besides, Raloxifene is used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.